There was an Australian scientist named Douglas Mawson who explored the Antarctica. He’s lesser known because he focused on scientific discoveries. On a three-man expedition in 1912, his two friends died and he barely made it back, starving and with his skin falling off from frostbite.
The second officer on the Titanic stayed on-board until the end and was trapped underwater until a boiler explosion blew him free. He survived by clinging to a capsized raft. Later, he volunteered in WWII and helped evacuate over 120 men from Dunkirk.
Flamingos can sleep in ponds that freeze around their legs at night, drink boiling water, and survive conditions that expose them to arsenic and poisonous gases.